Differential Diagnosis - National Multiple Sclerosis Society

Skip to navigation Skip to content

Differential Diagnosis

Share

In this article

Overview

The first requirement for a diagnosis of MS is that the presenting signs and symptoms be consistent with demyelinating disease. 

Differential Diagnosis Mnemonic (VITAMINS)

V - Vascular
  • Multiple lacunar infarcts; CADASIL; spinal arteriovenous malformation
I - Infectious
  • Lyme disease; syphilis; HIV myelopathy; PML; HTLV-1 myelopathy
T - Traumatic
  • Spondylitic myelopathy
A - Autoimmune
  • NMO; acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; CNS vasculitis; Behcet syndrome, sarcoidosis; SLE
M - Metabolic/Toxic
  • Central pontine myelinolysis; vitamin B12 deficiency; vitamin B6 deficiency; radiation; hypoxia
I - Idiopathic/Genetic
  • Spinocerebellar degeneration; Friedreich ataxia; Arnold-Chiari malformation; adrenoleukodystrophy; metachromatic dystrophy
N - Neoplastic
  • CNS lymphoma; glioma; paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis; metastatic cord compression
S - Psychiatric
  • Conversion disorder

Share


Become a Research Champion

An MS Research Revolution

MS NOW

Understanding and ending MS can’t come fast enough – it will take all of us working together. It’s easy to be a champion for MS Research – join us and proudly let everyone know that you’re helping to lead the MS Research Revolution.

Become a Research Champion

Become a Research Champion