National Multiple Sclerosis Society
Discover more about Multiple Sclerosis.
Frequently asked questions about MS and the National MS Society.
Read About MS
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, unpredictable disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves. It is thought to be an immune-mediated disorder, in which the immune system incorrectly attacks healthy tissue in the CNS.
MS can cause many symptoms, including blurred vision, loss of balance, poor coordination, slurred speech, tremors, numbness, extreme fatigue, problems with memory and concentration, paralysis, and blindness and more. These problems may come and go or persist and worsen over time. Most people are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50, although individuals as young as 2 and as old as 75 have developed it.
More than 2.3 million people are affected by MS worldwide. Because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not require U.S. physicians to report new cases, and because symptoms can be completely invisible, the prevalence of MS in the U.S. can only be estimated. The Society continues to advocate for the establishment of a national registry that will track the number of people living with MS and has made a commitment to re-evaluate the current prevalence estimate and investigate the process by which an updated estimate can be identified.
MS symptoms occur when the immune-system produces inflammation within the CNS. The inflammatory attack damages myelin, (the protective insulation surrounding nerve fibers), oligodendrocytes (cells that make CNS myelin) and sometimes the underlying nerve fiber. The damage caused by inflammation can produce symptoms that resolve over weeks to months or symptoms that are permanent.
Life expectancy for people with MS has increased over time. We believe this is due to treatment breakthroughs, improved healthcare and life style changes. Recent research however, indicates that people with MS may live an average of about seven years less than the general population because of disease complications or other medical conditions. Many of these complications are preventable or manageable. Attention to overall health and wellness can help reduce the risk of other medical conditions, such as heart disease and stroke, that can contribute to a shortened life expectancy. In some rare instances, there are cases of MS that progress rapidly from disease onset and can be fatal.
Not yet. There are now FDA-approved medications that have been shown to "modify" the course of MS by reducing the number of relapses and delaying progression of disability to some degree. In addition, many therapeutic and technological advances are helping people manage symptoms. Advances in treating and understanding MS are made every year, and progress in research to find a cure is very encouraging.
Our MS Navigators help identify solutions and provide access to the resources you are looking for. Call 1-800-344-4867 or contact us online.
If you or someone close to you has recently been diagnosed, access our MS information and resources.