Skip to navigation Skip to content

Differential Diagnosis

Share

In this article

Overview

The first requirement for a diagnosis of MS is that the presenting signs and symptoms be consistent with demyelinating disease. 

Differential diagnosis (MS mimics)

Autoimmune/inflammatory conditions

  • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)
  • Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein (MOG)-related demyelination
  • Sjogren’s Syndrome
  • CNS lupus
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Behçet’s disease
  • CNS vasculitis

CNS infections

  • CNS Syphilis
  • Lyme disease
  • Human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)
  • HIV

Metabolic conditions

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Copper deficiency
  • Mitochondrial disease
  • Leukodystrophies

Vascular conditions

  • Small vessel disease
  • Stroke
  • Susac syndrome
  • CADASIL
  • Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLAS)

Other

  • CNS lymphoma
  • Paraneoplastic myelopathy


 

Share


Become a Research Champion

An MS Research Revolution

Support MS Research

Understanding and ending MS can’t come fast enough – it will take all of us working together. It’s easy to be a champion for MS Research – join us and proudly let everyone know that you’re helping to lead the MS Research Revolution.

Become a Research Champion

Become a Research Champion

Your input is important!

We believe that people affected by MS live better lives when they're connected.  To help us provide you with the best resources, support and information, please provide your feedback in a short survey.
Take the survey